The SON-R 2.5-7 is used to measure general intelligence in children.
Children aged 2.5 to 7 years
The SON-R tests are suitable for all children between the ages of 2.5 to 7 years. The fact that they do not require written or spoken language during testing makes them particularly suited for:
- Children with hearing impairment
- Children with language or verbal communication difficulties
- Children with autism or ASD
- Children whose first language is not the language of the test version used
- Children and adults with learning disabilities
- Children who are difficult to test (e.g. because of test anxiety)
SON-R for the age range 2.5-7 years comprises six different sub-tests which are administered in the order below:
|Name of sub-test||Task part 1||Task part 2|
|1. Mosaics||Copying different mosaic patterns in a frame using 3-5 red squares.||Copying mosaic patterns in a frame using red, yellow and red/yellow squares.|
|2. Categories||Sorting cards into two groups according to the category to which they belong.||Three pictures of objects have something in common. From a series of five pictures, two must be chosen that have the same thing in common.|
|3. Puzzles||Puzzle pieces must be laid in a frame to resemble a given example.||Putting three to six separate puzzle pieces together to form a whole.|
|4. Analogies||Sorting discs into two compartments on the basis of form and/or colour and/or size.||Solving an analogy problem by applying the same rule as in the example.|
|5. Situations||Half of each of four pictures is printed. The missing halves must be placed with the correct pictures.||One or two pieces are missing from a drawing of a situation. The correct piece(s) must be selected from a number of alternatives.|
|6. Patterns||Copying a simple pattern.||Copying more complex patterns.|
The sub-tests measure abstract and concrete reasoning, spatial ability and visual perception. The use of written or spoken language is not required during testing. The adaptive test procedure and the feedback that is given after each item enhance subject motivation and contribute to the general acceptability of the instrument.
The sub-tests can be grouped into two types: reasoning tests (Categories, Analogies and Situations) and spatial performance tests (Mosaics, Puzzles and Patterns). The performance tests are so called because the item is solved while manipulating the test stimuli. In the reasoning tests the correct solution is chosen from a number of given alternatives. However, perceptual, spatial and reasoning ability play a role in all of the sub-tests. The performance sub-tests can be found in a similar form in other intelligence tests although in other tests these require verbal directions. Reasoning tests are also found in other batteries but they often have a verbal form (e.g. verbal analogies).
An adaptive procedure is used to prevent the administration of too many easy or too many difficult items.
An important way in which SON-R tests differ from most intelligence tests is that after each item feedback is given by telling the test taker whether the solution was correct or incorrect. The test administrator provides help in the case of incorrect solutions. One of the advantages of this is that the test taker has the opportunity to adjust his or her strategy. In traditional tests where no feedback is allowed the test taker may assume incorrect answers are correct and continue using a faulty strategy. The disadvantage of giving feedback is the fact that receiving negative feedback can be demotivating. This drawback is partly compensated for through the adaptive nature of the test procedure.
Software for scoring and analysis is available. After the raw scores, the test date and the date of birth have been entered, the standard scores are calculated and a profile can be printed out.
Qualification level required:
Level 2. Please see our Test User Qualifications page for guidance
UK normative data is currently being analysed for 673 UK children ages 2.6 to 6.11 years. Psychometric properties are based on the Dutch normative sample.
Approximately 50 minutes (excluding breaks)